Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Examination of Current Public Procurement Legislation and the Prohibition of Post-Tender Price Negotiation in the UK National Health System Objective Current public procurement legislation prohibits post-tender price negotiation in the UK National Health System. This work intends to examine the issue and either agree or disagree with relaxing of this rule. The argument will be supported with two examples from the North Bristol Integrated Community Hospital Specification. The Issue It is reported that tendering and post tender negotiation are primary components of management of purchasing and supply. According to CIPS conduction of the post, tender negotiation process should be the responsibility of the purchasing professional and as such, those individuals should participate in the necessary training programs to effectively do so. Post-tender negotiation when it is ethical and professional is held as an appropriate method of securing value for the money spent. It is recommended by CIPS that bid clarification detailed discussion about the offer should usually comprise the final stage after receipt of tenders and before contract award; it will normally lead to improved value being obtained. (CIPS, 2013) The reason stated is that there are often points in the tender which need to be clarified. During bid clarification, discussion might take place around the specification or delivery period for example. This may lead to negotiation on terms and conditions, warranties,Show MoreRelatedFunctional Approach to Internal Analysis14942 Words Ã |Ã 60 Pages |organization affecting perfomance | 3. Procurement Department |STRENGH |WEAKNESS |STRATEGIC IMPLICATION | |Existence of procurement policy | |Affects the timing,price and quality of goods | | | Read MoreCorporation (Fisch) Outline Penn Law Essay62808 Words Ã |Ã 252 PagesManagement Obligations Under Federal Securities Laws 67 C.) Shareholder Litigation 76 IV.) Structural Changes 85 A.) Transactions in Control 85 B.) Mergers and Acquisitions 86 1.) Mergers 87 2.) Sale of Assets 93 3.) Asset Purchase or Tender Offer 94 C.) Public Control Contests 96 1.) The Poison Pill 100 2.) Enhanced Review When Business is Up for Sale 103 3.) Proxy Contests for Corporate Control 106 4.) Protecting the Deal: Shareholder Lockup Agreements 109 I.) INTRODUCTORY PRINCIPLES Read MoreProfessional Misconduct58343 Words Ã |Ã 234 PagesPROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT By: Mrs. Surbhi Bansal M.Com., FCA Sec.2 (2): Members deemed to be in practice: If he i) Engages himself in practice of accountancy, or (ii) Offers to perform audit related services or holds himself out to the public as an accountant, or (iii) Renders professional service or assistance in Matters of accountant interest etc., or, (iv) Renders such other services which as per opinion of the council, to be rendered by C.A. in practice. (Mgt. consultancyRead MorePepsi Prospectus112807 Words Ã |Ã 452 Pagesrequirements is available. There will be no public offer of the Offer Shares mentioned herein in the United States. THIS PROSPECTUS IS TO BE USED EXCLUSIVELY FOR THE DOMESTIC OFFER AND IS NOT INTENDED TO BE VIEWED BY NON-PHILIPPINE RESIDENTS. Prospectus January 19, 2008 Pepsi-Cola Products Philippines, Inc. (incorporated with limited liability in the Republic of the Philippines) Primary and Secondary Offer of 1,142,348,680 Common Shares Offer Price of =3.50 per Offer Share P to be listedRead MoreNokias Human Resources System144007 Words Ã |Ã 577 Pages172 172 172 174 174 174 178 178 178 178 178 179 179 . 180 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 180 180 181 181 182 182 182 182 183 183 183 184 ITEM 17. ITEM 18. ITEM 19. GLOSSARY 3 INTRODUCTION AND USE OF CERTAIN TERMS Nokia Corporation is a public limited liability company incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Finland. In this document, any reference to Ã¢â¬Å"we,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"us,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"the GroupÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"NokiaÃ¢â¬ means Nokia Corporation and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, except where we make clearRead MoreFinancial Analysis of General Electric98175 Words Ã |Ã 393 Pagesearn your trust. It is how we compete and win. GE Works. A POSITION OF STRENGTH GEÃ¢â¬â¢s Operating EPS growth was 22% last year. We bought back preferred shares of stock we issued during the Ã¯ ¬ nancial crisis and increased our dividend twice. Our stock price Ã¯ ¬ nished about Ã¯ ¬âat, in line with the broader SP 500 Index. We outperformed the SP Financial and Industrial sectorsÃ¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Å"GE neighborhoodÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âwhich declined by 18% and 3%, respectively, in 2011. Despite our growth, it was tough for GE to break away
Friday, May 15, 2020
migration, a contribution to economic growth in the host country and the flow of remittances, money the migrants earn working abroad and then sending the earnings back to the family, to the home country. Yet, migration brings negative attitudes on immigrants such as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦worries that migration may reduce the job opportunities for natives and place a strain on public servicesÃ¢â¬ ¦fears are exacerbated by the weak global economy, and many countries have adopted measuresÃ¢â¬ ¦to stem the flow of peoples across bordersÃ¢â¬ (383). Another cause could also be due to these countries who have a large number of people that are essentially illiterate, they have barely any knowledge on family planning, and are located below the poverty line. In addition, they are unaware of the harmful effects that overpopulation can have. Not only is there a lack of family planning, but what is known as a Youth Bulge in Sub-Saharan Africa can help further explain the causes of overpopulation. T his youth bulge grows as the increasing youth population in the Global South continuously faces lack of resources to provide for families and poor economic conditions. These frustrated youth can be more prone to turning to religious fundamentalism or an involvement in crime and terrorism (Kegley Blanton 380). Developing countries have a huge increase in people between the ages of 15 and 29. Justin Yifu Lin, former World Bank Chief Economist, states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦if a large cohort of young people cannot find employment and earnShow MoreRelatedGlobalization And The Global Migration903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Global migration can be defined as the movement of large groups of people from one area to another. There are two kinds of migration. There is internal migration and there is external migration. External migration is the movement of groups of people between different countries. The movement doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t occur within the country. Internal migration is the movement of groups of people from one part of an area to another. The movement occurs within the country. Globalization is the global economic integrationRead MoreThe Three Advancements of Globalization 1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe role of human migration, international trade and rapid movements of capital. Globalization has many pros but yet also many cons that can have a deciding factor in an economy. Many people think globalization still favors the rich and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a detriment to countries who emerging in the world and does not have a stable or great economy. According to Bloomberg Business Week Globalization has said to have hit its peak in the year 2007, which ties into the unfolding of the Global crisis. Some CriticsRead MoreMarx Theory Of Reserve Army Of Labour1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages, rather than reducing migration, economic development increases migration. Marx theory of reserve army of labour is central to what he has to say about capitalism and workers wages; the proletariat. Most migrants in society today migrate to the US and end up working in factories where they manage machinery. Marx theory illustrates how capitalist industries consists of two parts - the machinery and the workers. Capitalist industries expand by sukingin their workers to operate the machinery, uppingRead MoreGlobalization And The International Political Economy1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPolitical Economy Globalization is a major factor in our international political economy. Globalization comes in many forms, some of which will be explained herein in more detail. According to Kegley and Blanton (2014), due to globalization, the number of questions about how changes in one country s economics and politics influence trends in the word politics and the global economy (p. 328), has resulted in an area of scholarly study being coined, to wit: international political economy (IPE)Read MoreGlobalization Is A For The Mass Movement Of Labor1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat have resulted to exploitation and domination of labor force (Mohanty, 2013). Notably, when movement of labor is involved, issues about gender inequality arises and other aspects such as sexism, and racism as facets of colonialism in the current global economic era. For instance, women from developing countries are normally involved with the provision of childcare, health care, and domestic services to developed countries th at have high income countries. Even though most of these women migrate atRead MoreThe Political Economy Model Of Migration Policy1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Gary Freeman suggests the gap between rhetoric and reality is best described in a political economic account of migration policy. The political economy model of migration is modelled on the interests of three sets of rational actors: voters, organised groups and state actors who attempts to maximize their individual goals subject to state interests in different contexts (Freeman, 2002). The first is post-industrial change, which suggests stances on immigration policy are better viewed as interestsRead MoreContent Analysis Essay1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinclude world population, economy, disaster costs, global health, climate change and global warming, environmental issues, water crises, education and employment, migration, science and technology, and outlook. Each section builds from the previous section. The sections part priority into messages of the magnitude, importance and direction of natural disasters, global warming, overpopulation, and industrialization. Recurrent words are population and over population, economy, natural disaster, dataRead MoreGlobalization and Its Affect on Racism1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGlobalization and its Effect on Racism Racism, in the Oxford English Dictionary, is defined as Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own race is superior, and, The belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races. The essence of both definitions seems to be that specificRead MoreThe Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Leadership Effectiveness in Multinational Organizations1354 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA Study on Cultural intelligence and its effect on leadership effectiveness and behavior in multinational organizations in Asia Introduction The success of corporate sector is the critical element for the sustained growth and prosperous economy of any nation. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s tough competitive market environment, organizations strive to differentiate themselves from the rest by offering the most innovative product and services to the consumers. Organizations that offer solutions beyond the current needsRead MoreMulti Cultural And Multi Racial1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMany of the Caribbean traditions exist because of the historical happenings in these islands during the colonial period. The multi-cultural aspects of the Caribbean resulted not only from labour demands in these countries but also because of global migration patterns. Historical Influences Many of the Caribbean islands were at some point part of colonization efforts by European countries (Hall, 1985). The sugar crop was a significant factor for these European colonies. The sugar crop turned
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Risk Management of Legal Issues affecting E-Commerce Introduction Risk management is the ability to identify, assess, and prioritize risks depending on the threat they poses on a business and the resources available. Most organizations are operating their business online nowadays. Many industries such as banking, insurance, selling of goods, offering of certain services are turning their operations online. E-commerce has many challenges that threaten to make any organization conducting online business to fail. The ability to identify, asses, and come up with solutions to the risks in the e-commerce industry is essential in ensuring success of the organization. One of the major challenges of e-commerce is the legal implications amongÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Once the team has identified the risks that need immediate attention, then they can go forward to communicate with other teams responsible for the product. In case the problem is with the website, the team must communicate with the web developers and other parties involved seeking the way f orward to address the problem (Shah, Nagree, 2001). The third step to risk management is envisaging the consequences of the actions that an organization takes for a certain risk. The responsible teams must envisage the possible outcomes of any of the actions they take to tackle any problem. A problem with the copyright issues invites for certain actions from the responsible group. The group must look at all the possibilities of the action it takes. By looking at the future possibilities of an action, the group can decide on the best course of action. For example, there might be two actions the responsible group can take to deal with a problem, the group should look at both the actions and decide on the best that will even avoid such problems in the future but not just the action that best solves the problem now (Bouridis, 2010).. The management has to plan for the risk. The steps above call for the planning of risk. Some risks are urgent, others must be immediate, and others essential. All these risks require special attention. Therefore, the management must plan on how to al with the risks depending onShow MoreRelatedFactors Affecting the OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Buying Behaviour5062 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesFactors affecting the OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Buying Behaviour Anum Khan Asma Siddiqui Ayesha Majid Hamza Muhammad Ms. Maryyam Khan Industrial Marketing, A SSC 206 July 13, 2012 Lahore School of Economics The organizational purchase behavior is the most complex process the organizations have to deal with in the buying process. The decision making authority and central influencing departments will evolve around the buying center. The roles which have to be carried by the buying center in the purchaseRead MoreItaly : A Country Of Forward Fashion Industry And Exotic Cars1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslocated in southern Europe. Italy is a country of forward fashion industry and exotic cars. Italy has been a republic nation since June 1946 with 20 regions (KEY FACTS AND OVERVIEW, 2007, p.4). In addition, the COUNTRY REPORT (2014) states that the risk factors in politics, economy, tax and operational are moderate (p.1). a) Geographic and historical data regarding international business Italy is in southern Europe; it consists of a mountainous peninsula and includes the islands of Sicily, SardiniaRead MoreManaging Risk Of Managing A Flower Business2202 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesManaging risk activity is an integral part of good management approach during all project phases. This approach leads to effective and continuous improvement in performance and used for forecasting purposes. The purpose of preparing risk management plan is to assess and treat risks efficiently and effectively and adopt control strategies for their consequences. A good approach for making risk management helps in achieving the objectives at a lower overall cost and schedule. It is common and usefulRead MoreInternational Contract Laws And Issues For Multinational Contracting Parties Essay2314 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL CONTRACT LAWS AND ISSUES FOR MULTINATIONAL CONTRACTING PARTIES Abstract: Now that globalization has reached its peak and every big company has an offshore branch, the need of the hour is to discuss the International Contract laws and better them for a future that is just around the corner. This essay will deal with the various trends in the International Contract laws including the consumer and non-consumer contracts , arbitration agreements , the rule of lex voluntatisRead MoreEvaluate Amazons Diversification Strategy.4067 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesDiversification in E- Commerce [pic] Diana Reyes Ã¢â¬â 27828 Introduction Economies of scope and synergies in business operations are consequences of diversification strategies. It is possible to classify companies according to the type of diversification strategy selected. Unrelated diversifiers are companies that diversify across industry, while related diversifiers are firms that diversify within the industry (Kim, Hwang and Burgers 1989). Companies pursuing related diversification overRead MoreReview of Literature of Indian Banking System After Liberalisation1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.6 Meaning The Concept Need For A Comparative Financial Analysis Significance Of Financial Analysis Tools for Financial Analysis Ratio analysis Horizontal Analysis Vertical Analysis Funds Flow Analysis Cash Flow Statement Factors Affecting Financial Statement Analysis References 30 31 32 33 36 37 54 55 56 58 64 66 69 69 71 71 71 71 73 81 84 86 89 89 90 90 93 94 94 95 ii 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 RESEARCH DESIGN Objective of the study Research Methodology SecondaryRead MoreBusiness Law1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Identify the ethical, strategic, operational, and financial issues in this scenario and list them in priority order from most to least critical. As a global healthcare organization, our goal has always been to promote quality of care and optimal health to people around the world. We have a firm commitment to serve diverse communities with products and services that reflect the latest trends in innovation and the highest quality at reasonable prices to match consumer expectations and needs. WeRead MoreThe Impact Of Electronic Commerce On The Development Of Electronic- Commerce3784 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagestechnology and communicative devices, electronic commerce and digital markets has steadily impacted the expansion of information systems, organizations, and society, on a global scale. The discussion of cultural differences as it relates to electronic commerce was identified while analyzing primary factors that markets should take into account. The characteristics and trends of each country examine the utilization of the Internet and electronic commerce. With attempts to compare the United States andRead MoreEssay E-Commerce a nd Vladimir Zwass2877 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesE-Commerce E-Commerce is a shortened word which means Electronic-Commerce. Vladimir Zwass (2001) defines E-Commerce as the process of carrying out business transactions by the use of telecommunication networks. It involves sharing business information and maintaining business relationships. E- Commerce started as early as 1948 during the Berlin airlift in the form of electronic transmissions (Seideman, 1996). E-Commerce later developed into electronic data interchange (EDI) and in the 1960s, industriesRead MoreeCommerce Developments and Themes10793 Words Ã |Ã 44 PagesE-Business Chapter 1 E-commerce Developments and Themes- 2003 More: Ã¯ ® Use of the Internet to conduct commerce Ã¯ ® deepening of e-commerce channel Ã¯ ® Broadband and wireless Internet access Ã¯ ® refined e-commerce business models (Ã¢â â higher levels of profitability) But at societal level: continued conflict over copyrights, content regulation, taxation, privacy, and Internet fraud and abuse. E-commerce E-business E-commerce involves digitally enabled commercial transactions between and among
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family. I chose this essay prompt because I feel my story of accomplishment is not only important to me but also my family, to ensure our continued ranching heritage way of life. I remember it like it was yesterday, the morning I was told I would be caring for my own cattle, having my own feed truck and horse trailer, and being responsible for the day-to-day issues that may arise regarding the areas assigned to my care.Although the cattle and equipment werenÃ¢â¬â¢t truly mine, I was to tend to them as if they were.I knew what the unspoken expectation was and I also knew I was ready for the responsibility. I was fifteen years old when I accepted the tasks of working for the Gray G Bar Ranch which is owned and operated by my stepdad in Shidler, OK. We will write a custom essay sample on Accomplishment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I was to care for over 2000 head of steers through the summer months getting them ready for shipping in early Fall.There are three other cowboys that work on this ranch having their own cattle and responsibilities but this did ease a little of my anxiety because I knew they would be readily available if I needed them. Getting up at 5 am every morning during the summer to beat the heat was truly a bold task by itself.With the heat index reaching well of 100Ã ° on several days, I many times questioned my decision to work outside, on a ranch, when a lot of my friends were at the lake or sleeping until noon! Of course, these thoughts didnÃ¢â¬â¢t last long when I was horseback enjoying nature and knowing how fortunate I was to be brought up with this lifestyle. I learned more about myself and what I wanted for my future during this first summer of practically sole responsibility and I am so grateful that I had people believe in me. Starting high school after my first summer having a Ã¢â¬Å"real jobÃ¢â¬ was exciting for me.I had successfully completed an assignment and earned some money doing it.I seemed like somehow, I had truly grown up in just the previous summer months.I continue to work at the ranch on weekends and whenever there are breaks during school. I feel having a good work ethic is of utmost importance and to always strive to obtain your goals, regardless the activity.I think my hard work and determination has carried over in my classwork and in my leadership qualities as a sports participant and a leader in our school.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Introduction With 3,645 hotels and more than 470,000 rooms in 92 countries that are spread across all continents, Accor Group of Hotel is one on the largest chain of hotels in the world. As at June 2014, the company had an estimated Ã¢â ¬8.2 billion market capitalisation. It had revenue of Ã¢â ¬5536 million as at 2013.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Market Auditing and Planning in Accor Group specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Accor Group is a market leader in Europe and a major player in the world. The hotel group is ranked among the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top ten largest hotels in the world. With over 45 years and its presence worldwide, the hotel has a well-deserved position (Accor Group 2014). The company has a portfolio of hotel brands that cover all market segments from economy to luxury. The portfolio ensures a wide coverage of as many consumers as possible. Its five-star brands of hotels include the Sofitel b rand, while its four-star brands include the Novetel brand. Its three-star and two-star hotel brands are the Ibis and Hotel F1 respectively. Despite its presence in nearly all continents, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits have lagged behind other competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ earnings. The situation has been attributed to many factors, among them being its expansion model through leases. The new planned measures of dividing the company into two divisions, namely HotelServices and HotelInvest, will go a long way in improving profits and better returns to investors. It will also position the group to be more competitive. As the company moves ahead, it will have to put more resources to market its brand and cement it in its existing market locations to boost its profitability while at the same time playing an important role in enabling future successes in its expansion plans. This paper will discuss important aspects of market auditing and planning to position the company to be more competitive in it s market segment. Importance of Market Planning and Auditing at Accor Group of Hotels The hotel industry is a highly essential business. It is important in providing accommodation for people on transit, holidays, and conferences among others. It also supports other essential sectors of the world economy such as tourism, transport, and agriculture (Middleton Clarke 2012). With the increasing globalisation and movement of people between countries, as well as within their respective nations, the hotel industry will continue to grow and provide essential services to the society. However, the industry is highly competitive. Hotels are competing to offer similar or differentiated services to consumers (Tollin CarÃ ¹ 2008).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While goods in the form of food are sold in the hotel industry, the focus of the paper is the marketing of services such as accommodation and related luxuries such as security, experience, comfort, entertainment, and dinner experiences.Ã Marketing auditing is a major aspect of any organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing planning process since it seeks to position itself to be more competitive and profitable in the industry (McDonald Wilson 2011). It allows an organisation to look into its macro and microenvironments and effectively identity the trends in the industry, its strengths and weakness, opportunities, and threats, which allow it to have competitive advantage over its rivals. Further, it allows the organisation to come up with a corporate strategy with goals that it is sure of achieving based on its strengths and opportunities that are identified in the auditing process. As Accor Group of Hotels moves ahead with its plan of dividing its hotel management approaches into two segments, it is important to have a marketing audit, which will guide its marketing plans and strategies towards more profitabilit y. Further, due to the high competition in the industry, marketing audit is a very good tool for ensuring that the company can identify the trends and best practices in the industry. It also stands a chance to identify its strengths and opportunities that it can maximise to its advantage. Consequently, marketing audit is an important and relevant tool that Accor Group of Hotels must use to guide its market planning process and development of the corporate strategies. Specific Business Tools for Marketing Auditing and Planning at Accor Accor can utilise various marketing audit tools to evaluate its marketing assets and/or review its marketing strategies, objectives, policies, and the means it seeks to use to achieve these goals and objectives. In the changing business environment, it is important to not only do auditing before the planning process, but also during the implementation process and the evaluation of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future possible marketing actions (Taghian Shaw 20 08). The marketing audit allows an organisation to understand its external and internal environment, as well as its strategy development (Violeta 2012). To carry out marketing audit, various business tools are used to cover both external and internal business environment. At Accor Group of Hotels, a SWOT analysis can help the organisation to establish the key areas that it can emphasise while reducing its weak areas in its marketing strategies in an effort to boost its competitiveness through its restructuring plan.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Market Auditing and Planning in Accor Group specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, this tool can be used to identify the viability of its marketing plans that are focused on expanding its business in locations such as North America and Africa where it has less presence. It can help the company to ensure that its marketing strategies are aligned with the prevail ing market conditions in the specific markets. SWOT Analysis for Accor Group of Hotels Strengths Weaknesses Strong financial resources as evidenced by its market capitalisation of Ã¢â ¬8.8 billion Strong global brand identity and recognition Its 45 years of experience in the hotel industry The company has less risk for its business due to its presence in many locations It has a strong reach of different levels of clients Strong and good relationships with its business partners such as suppliers Strong brand name, image, and reputation, both locally and internationally An inefficient business model that has seen it lag behind other rivals in terms of profitability Low profits as compared to the industry trends Low product differentiation as compared to those of others Opportunities Threats The emerging markets in Asia and Africa offer opportunity for expansion and profits Its low penetration to the North American market at 1% shows that the company has the pote ntial to invest more in this market The company has an opportunity to invest more in product innovation and differentiation The growing market of travel and tourism presents a good opportunity for the company to grow even higher Increasing competition from other players in the industry who are ready to dominate the market Threats of new hotel entrants and models that may affect it, especially in emerging markets such as Africa Threats of global market volatility due to recession and currency fluctuations Increased insecurity in places such as Africa and Asia, which may greatly affect the number of people travelling to those regions and hence less business for the company Another tool that Accor Group can use for marketing audit is the PEST analysis, which analyses the political, environmental, social, and technological conditions of the various markets where it exists. For instance, the company can use this tool to identify the conditions in the market and the viability of expanding its luxury hotels in specific market locations that the company may consider now or in the future. Macro-environment for Accor Group in Asia Macro environmental elements are the factors that happen in an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment that it cannot control, yet they are important in guiding its decision-making processes (Chabra 2012). They relate to the political, economic, social, and technological matters that must be considered at all times in an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic planning process. Looking at AccorÃ¢â¬â¢s Asia market, the organisation must consider various important macro-environment factors as shown below: Pest Analysis For Accor Group Of Hotels Political Factors Economic Factors GovernmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ policies on foreign investors and businesses in emerging markets Political stability, especially in Asia where the company seeks to expand and dominate Punitive tax measures Consumer perception and willingness to spend on luxury hol idays Economic growth rates of the countries High rentals for business premises Availability of credit finance Stability of interest rates Dollar exchange rates with local currencies Income levels of the target groups Social Factors Technological Factors Buying and access trends Changing societal values Changing lifestyles and consumer demographics Level of education Brand and company image Fast-changing technological environment Technology access patents and licensing Intellectual property issues Consumer buying mechanisms E-commerce infrastructure From the above table, political stability is a major factor that must be considered by Accor Group. The hotel industry is highly dependent on tourism and travel sectors, which only flourish where there is political stability. Therefore, it is important for the company to strive to ensure that its expansion plans consider the political climate of the respective countries. For example, major uprisings in the Middle East fr om groups such as Al-Qaida and the ISIS are a real threat to the tourism industry and in extension the hotel industry. Therefore, it is important for Accor Group to consider these factors in its expansion plans for its Asian market. Micro-environment for Accor Group in Asia The microenvironment refers to the immediate business factors in a businessÃ¢â¬â¢ area of operations. They can influence its performance and its decision-making capabilities. These factors are unique to the business. They include customers, suppliers, producers, distribution channels, and the public among others (McDonald Wilson 2011).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five-force model is an important tool for analysing Accor GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s microenvironment. The model considers supplier powers, threats of new entrants, customer powers, substitutes, and competitive rivalry.Ã In the case of Accor Group, the threat of new entrants is not very high since the company targets different consumer segments to ensure that is has a competitive advantage over others, especially the new and emerging players. However, considerable threats of entrants are evident with reference to other existing and reputable companies that can set base and compete effectively with Accor Group in the areas where it dominates. For instance, the Intercontinental Hotel Group is a major competitor. It also has a wide coverage as Accor Group. Secondly, the threat of substitute is very high in the industry due to the high number of hotels in the sector. However, the company has remedied this situation by establishing hotels that target various levels of consumers fro m five-star to two-star hotels. The plan ensures that the company is competitive in terms of pricing. The company should also guarantee quality services and reduced operation costs to improve its profit margins. The third important factor is customer bargaining authority. The hotel industry serves a wide array of customers. Hence, it experiences a moderate to low pressure with reference to customer powers in the sector. Further, customers are driven by many factors such as quality services, pricing, and security. Hence, no customer can monopolise the industry. There is also an increasing brand loyalty for Accor Group, which erodes customer bargaining power.Ã Fourthly, supplier bargaining command can play an important role in Accor GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s microenvironment. However, with its presence in numerous countries, and consequently a high number of suppliers, it is difficult for suppliers to leverage a significant power over Accor Group of Hotels.Ã Lastly, rivalry in the industry i s very high. Accor Group of Hotels must consider this factor the most important. The process of attracting customers with various offers and services is competitive. In addition, other players are increasingly adopting cost-effective strategies to increase their profit margins. For instance, automating management systems and the adoption of technologies are the new frontier for competition in Accor GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s luxury market segment. Market Research and Market Intelligence Timely and informed research is an important ingredient for successful decision-making in any given industry. For instance, looking at the hotel industry, especially in the mid-market segment in Asia where Accor Group has interest in, it is worth carrying out an informed decision-making process that is guided by market research. In the Asian market, the region has been experiencing phenomenal economic growths that are fuelled by the emergence of economic powerhouses such as China and the oil-rich Middle East Asi an nations (Kurkarni 2014). These encouraging conditions have attracted many hotels that are keen on increasing expenditure on luxury and transport. For instance, major hotel players such as Intercontinental, Starwood, and Mantra have focused almost 80% of their expansion plans on this area of the world. Further, with more than 250 million visitors coming to China each year, the hotel industry will continue to surge even higher. Further, hotel occupancy has consistently been higher than 82% since 2012. This finding is an encouraging trend, which hotels must recognise and maximise. Another important fact is that the luxury segment of 35% dominates the Asian market while the mid-market segment constitutes only 24%. Hence, by focusing on this segment, Accor Group will serve an obviously underserved and overlooked market segment. By carrying out market research and intelligence, the company will be in a better position to understand market trends and competition levels. Hence, it will i dentify the target customers, especially in the middle class for its mid-market segment hotels. Segmentation and Specific Segmentation Variables Segmentation is an important factor for any business. It allows an organisation to identify and divide its target customers into various groups that have specific characteristics (Rusten Bryson 2010). These characteristics or variables may include age, sex, and income among others. For example, the luxury segment of Accor Group mostly targets high-income individuals, especially people in executive positions or corporate clients. These clients can be found in major cities of the world. Such clients are mostly in the age working bracket of 30 to 55 years. By segmenting the market, Accor Group is in a better position to design its marketing strategies that best suit this group of customers. Market Positioning Positioning involves the efforts that an organisation exerts towards creating a specific brand image. For instance, through its various brands, the company has positioned itself as a flexible company that can satisfy the expectations of other businesses while at the same time offering the highest luxury levels to all its customers (Tollin CarÃ ¹ 2008). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s luxury segment has positioned itself as an excellent segment that offers outstanding and memorable experiences to its customers, regardless of the location where they receive the services. In other words, the organisation seeks consistency of services across its outlets in the world. Understanding Buyer Behaviour The customer is always the king. This claim cannot be far from the truth, especially in the hotel industry. For instance, Accor Group must always understand the prevailing customer preferences and trends and implement them as soon as they arise. Consequently, market research should be an ongoing process to guarantee innovation and creativity, and hence organisational competitiveness. Conclusion Marketing is an elaborate subject that co vers diverse areas that are critical in an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic planning. As discussed herein, Accor Group of hotels must undertake marketing audit that involves identification of its powers, flaws, success chances, and threats that will guide its marketing planning. It is also an important process of understanding competition. The company needs to identify and appeal to its customers through segmentation and positioning of its brand. References Accor Group 2014, Key Figures. Web. Chabra, T 2012, Marketing management, University Press, New York, NY. Kurkarni, A 2014, Hotel views 2014: Asia Pacific. Web. McDonald, M Wilson, H 2011, Marketing Plans: How to prepare them, how to use them, John Wiley Sons, New York, NY. Middleton, V Clarke, J 2012, Marketing in travel and tourism, Routledge, New York, NY. Rusten, G Bryson, J 2010, Industrial design, competition and globalisation, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK. Taghian, M Shaw, R 2008, Ã¢â¬ËThe marketing audit and organisational performance: an empirical profilingÃ¢â¬â¢, The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, vol. 16 no. 4, pp. 341-350. Tollin, K CarÃ ¹, A 2008, Strategic market creation: A New Perspective on, John Wiley and Sons, Cambridge, UK. Violeta, R 2012, Ã¢â¬ËThe role of market analysis in developing efficient marketing auditÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, vol. 1 no. 5, pp. 222-229. 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Wednesday, March 11, 2020
metropolitan instrument essays The musical instruments collection of the metropolitan museum holds approximately five thousand examples from six continents and the pacific islands dating from about 300B.C. to the present. In this exhibit we can find all categories of instrument present in our history. Indeed, classified by continents and different region of the world, the categories of instrument presented are: wind instruments (brass, wood), string instruments, percussions, and other typical ancient instruments. We can make a point on the fact that even 2000 years later these categories of instruments still being used by contemporaneous musical players. One of the most ancient categories could be the wind section with an typical aborigene's instrument called the didgeridoo. Found on the Australian continent B.C., this wind instrument was made with an empty branch of eucalyptus. This instrument still being used nowadays. Music has played an important role in the human civilization, indeed music was present in all ancient societies (B.C. and A.C.) , then in all parts of the world. The most ancient instruments were found on the following continents; Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, and South America. On the Australian continent, the didgeridoo (mentioned before) was played B.C by local aborigenes in ritual and ceremonial purposes. This woodwind instrument is the oldest one of the Australian continent. In Asia, the diversity of ancient instruments found is more important than in Australia. All sections are represented. Percussions section is represented by a lots cymbals, and tambours such as the khol , used to accompany kirtan the sacred Vaisana devotional music of Bengal and East India. In ancient South and Central Asia civilizations there was also a lot of wind instruments, the Dung chen , a wood and brass long trumpet (early 17 century) was one of the major religious instruments. Made first in China this instrument w...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Consumer Attitudes and Behaviour - Assignment Example Table of Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Fishbein and AjzenÃ¢â¬â¢s (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action 3 2.1 Overview of Fishbein and AjzenÃ¢â¬â¢s theory 3 2.2 Critical analysis and evaluation of Fishbein and AjzenÃ¢â¬â¢s theory 5 3. Evaluation of Change 4 Life campaign Ã¢â¬â use of Fishbein and AjzenÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory in order to analyse how the Change 4 Life campaign has succeeded in changing the eating behaviours and activity levels of young children in the UK 9 4. Conclusion 11 References 13 Appendix 15 1. Introduction The increase of consumption worldwide, as a consequence of the advances of technology and the following changes in the trends and patterns of social life, has led to a series of social and economic problems; the terms under which consumption is promoted are not always carefully monitored; moreover, no limits or rules have been set regarding the access of children to specific products and services. Additionally, in many cases, the rules of health and safety are ig nored, even with involving in sectors, which are critical for public health, for instance the preparation of food. The implications of the above phenomena can be many. As an example, it has been proved that certain parts of the population, especially children, are more likely to develop unhealthy habits under the influence of advertising. Current paper focuses on the evaluation of the efforts of British Government to help towards the change of eating behaviour and activity levels to children Ã¢â¬â reference is made specifically to the Ã¢â¬ËChange 4 LifeÃ¢â¬â¢ campaign of the British government, a campaign introduced in 2009. The level at which the targets of the British government, as explained above, have been achieved is critically discussed using the theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein and Ajzen); the elements and the requirements are also presented using the literature published in the specific field. 2. Fishbein and AjzenÃ¢â¬â¢s (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action 2.1 Ove rview of Fishbein and AjzenÃ¢â¬â¢s theory In order to understand the role and the implications of the theory of reasoned action Ã¢â¬â referring especially to the potential use of this theory in evaluating a marketing project Ã¢â¬â it is necessary to refer to the conditions under which the particular theory was introduced. In other words, it is important to mention the gaps that the specific theory was asked to cover. Then, the analysis of the elements of the theory can help to understand whether this theory would be effective in modern social and financial environment. The theory of reasoned action of Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) has been introduced as a supplementary theoretical framework to the theory of planned behaviour (Berkowitz 1987). More specifically, the theory of reasoned action Ã¢â¬â as also the theory of planned behaviour Ã¢â¬â requires the willingness of a person for a particular action; without this prerequisite, i.e. the willingness of the actor, the theor y of reasoned action cannot be used Ã¢â¬â neither the theory of planned behaviour; however, this seems to be the only common point between the two theories; after that point, the two theories are differentiated and are applied independently. The theory of reasoned action is based on the claim that Ã¢â¬Ëmost behaviours of interest in the domains of personality and social psychology fall into the volitional